Fri, 14 Apr 2017

#5: Easy package information

Welcome to the fifth post in the recklessly rambling R rants series, or R4 for short.

The third post showed an easy way to follow R development by monitoring (curated) changes on the NEWS file for the development version r-devel. As a concrete example, I mentioned that it has shown a nice new function (tools::CRAN_package_db()) coming up in R 3.4.0. Today we will build on that.

Consider the following short snippet:


getPkgInfo <- function() {
    if (exists("tools::CRAN_package_db")) {
        dat <- tools::CRAN_package_db()
    } else {
        tf <- tempfile()
        download.file("", tf, quiet=TRUE)
        dat <- readRDS(tf)              # r-devel can now readRDS off a URL too
    dat <-

It defines a simple function getPkgInfo() as a wrapper around said new function from R 3.4.0, ie tools::CRAN_package_db(), and a fallback alternative using a tempfile (in the automagically cleaned R temp directory) and an explicit download and read of the underlying RDS file. As an aside, just this week the r-devel NEWS told us that such readRDS() operations can now read directly from URL connection. Very nice---as RDS is a fantastic file format when you are working in R.

Anyway, back to the RDS file! The snippet above returns a data.table object with as many rows as there are packages on CRAN, and basically all their (parsed !!) DESCRIPTION info and then some. A gold mine!

Consider this to see how many package have a dependency (in the sense of Depends, Imports or LinkingTo, but not Suggests because Suggests != Depends) on Rcpp:

R> dat <- getPkgInfo()
R> rcppRevDepInd <- as.integer(tools::dependsOnPkgs("Rcpp", recursive=FALSE, installed=dat))
R> length(rcppRevDepInd)
[1] 998

So exciting---we will hit 1000 within days! But let's do some more analysis:

R> dat[ rcppRevDepInd, RcppRevDep := TRUE]  # set to TRUE for given set
R> dat[ RcppRevDep==TRUE, 1:2]
           Package Version
  1:      ABCoptim  0.14.0
  2: AbsFilterGSEA     1.5
  3:           acc   1.3.3
  4: accelerometry   2.2.5
  5:      acebayes   1.3.4
994:        yakmoR   0.1.1
995:  yCrypticRNAs  0.99.2
996:         yuima   1.5.9
997:           zic     0.9
998:       ziphsmm   1.0.4

Here we index the reverse dependency using the vector we had just computed, and then that new variable to subset the data.table object. Given the aforementioned parsed information from all the DESCRIPTION files, we can learn more:

R> ## likely false entries
R> dat[ RcppRevDep==TRUE, ][NeedsCompilation!="yes", c(1:2,4)]
            Package Version                                                                         Depends
 1:         baitmet   1.0.0                                                           Rcpp, erah (>= 1.0.5)
 2:           bea.R   1.0.1                                                        R (>= 3.2.1), data.table
 3:            brms   1.6.0                     R (>= 3.2.0), Rcpp (>= 0.12.0), ggplot2 (>= 2.0.0), methods
 4: classifierplots   1.3.3                             R (>= 3.1), ggplot2 (>= 2.2), data.table (>= 1.10),
 5:           ctsem   2.3.1                                           R (>= 3.2.0), OpenMx (>= 2.3.0), Rcpp
 6:        DeLorean   1.2.4                                                  R (>= 3.0.2), Rcpp (>= 0.12.0)
 7:            erah   1.0.5                                                               R (>= 2.10), Rcpp
 8:             GxM     1.1                                                                              NA
 9:             hmi   0.6.3                                                                    R (>= 3.0.0)
10:        humarray     1.1 R (>= 3.2), NCmisc (>= 1.1.4), IRanges (>= 1.22.10),\nGenomicRanges (>= 1.16.4)
11:         iNextPD   0.3.2                                                                    R (>= 3.1.2)
12:          joinXL   1.0.1                                                                    R (>= 3.3.1)
13:            mafs   0.0.2                                                                              NA
14:            mlxR   3.1.0                                                           R (>= 3.0.1), ggplot2
15:    RmixmodCombi     1.0              R(>= 3.0.2), Rmixmod(>= 2.0.1), Rcpp(>= 0.8.0), methods,\ngraphics
16:             rrr   1.0.0                                                                    R (>= 3.2.0)
17:        UncerIn2     2.0                          R (>= 3.0.0), sp, RandomFields, automap, fields, gstat

There are a full seventeen packages which claim to depend on Rcpp while not having any compiled code of their own. That is likely false---but I keep them in my counts, however relunctantly. A CRAN-declared Depends: is a Depends:, after all.

Another nice thing to look at is the total number of package that declare that they need compilation:

R> ## number of packages with compiled code
R> dat[ , .(N=.N), by=NeedsCompilation]
   NeedsCompilation    N
1:               no 7625
2:              yes 2832
3:               No    1

Isn't that awesome? It is 2832 out of (currently) 10458, or about 27.1%. Just over one in four. Now the 998 for Rcpp look even better as they are about 35% of all such packages. In order words, a little over one third of all packages with compiled code (which may be legacy C, Fortran or C++) use Rcpp. Wow.

Before closing, one shoutout to Dirk Schumacher whose thankr which I made the center of the last post is now on CRAN. As a mighty fine and slim micropackage without external dependencies. Neat.

This post by Dirk Eddelbuettel originated on his Thinking inside the box blog. Please report excessive re-aggregation in third-party for-profit settings.

/code/r4 | permanent link

Sat, 08 Apr 2017

#4: Simpler shoulders()

Welcome to the fourth post in the repulsively random R ramblings series, or R4 for short.

My twitter feed was buzzing about a nice (and as yet unpublished, ie not-on-CRAN) package thankr by Dirk Schumacher which compiles a list of packages (ordered by maintainer count) for your current session (or installation or ...) with a view towards saying thank you to those whose packages we rely upon. Very nice indeed.

I had a quick look and run it twice ... and had a reaction of ewwww, really? as running it twice gave different results as on the second instance a boatload of tibblyverse packages appeared. Because apparently kids these day can only slice data that has been tidied or something.

So I had another quick look ... and put together an alternative version using just base R (as there was only one subfunction that needed reworking):

format_pkg_df <- function(df) { # non-tibblyverse variant
    tb <- table(df[,2])
    od <- order(tb, decreasing=TRUE)
    ndf <- data.frame(maint=names(tb)[od], npkgs=as.integer(tb[od]))
    colpkgs <- function(m, df) { paste(df[ df$maintainer == m, "pkg_name"], collapse=",") }
    ndf[, "pkg"] <- sapply(ndf$maint, colpkgs, df)

A nice side benefit is that the function is now free of external dependencies (besides, of course, base R). Running this in the ESS session I had open gives:

R> shoulders()  ## by Dirk Schumacher, with small modifications
                               maint npkgs                                                                 pkg
1 R Core Team <>     9 compiler,graphics,tools,utils,grDevices,stats,datasets,methods,base
2 Dirk Eddelbuettel <>     4                                  RcppTOML,Rcpp,RApiDatetime,anytime
3  Matt Dowle <>     1                                                          data.table

and for good measure a screenshot is below:

I think we need a catchy moniker for R work using good old base R. SoberVerse? GrumbyOldFolksR? PlainOldR? Better suggestions welcome.

Edit on 2017-04-09: And by now Dirk Schumacher fixed that little bug in thankr which was at the start of this. His shoulders() function is now free of side effects, and thankr is now a clean micropackage free of external depends from any verse, be it tiddly or grumpy. I look forward to seeing it on CRAN soon!

This post by Dirk Eddelbuettel originated on his Thinking inside the box blog. Please report excessive re-aggregation in third-party for-profit settings.

/code/r4 | permanent link

Thu, 06 Apr 2017

#3: Follow R-devel

Welcome to the third post in the rarely relevant R recommendation series, or R4 for short.

Today will be brief, but of some importance. In order to know where R is going next, few places provide a better vantage point than the actual ongoing development.

A few years ago, I mentioned to Duncan Murdoch how straightforward the setup of my CRANberries feed (and site) was. After all, static blog compilers converting textual input to html, rss feed and whatnot have been around for fifteen years (though they keep getting reinvented). He took this to heart and built the (not too pretty) R-devel daily site (which also uses a fancy diff tool as it shows changes in NEWS) as well as a more general description of all available sub-feeds. I follow this mostly through blog aggregations -- Google Reader in its day, now Feedly. A screenshot is below just to show that it doesn't have to be ugly just because it is on them intertubes:

This shows a particularly useful day when R-devel folded into the new branch for what will be the R 3.4.0 release come April 21. The list of upcoming changes is truly impressive and quite comprehensive -- and the package registration helper, focus of posts #1 and #2 here, is but one of these many changes.

One function I learned about that day is tools::CRAN_package_db(), a helper to get a single (large) data.frame with all package DESCRIPTION information. Very handy. Others may have noticed that CRAN repos now have a new top-level file PACKAGES.rds and this function does indeed just fetch it--which you could do with a similar one-liner in R-release as well. Still very handy.

But do read about changes in R-devel and hence upcoming changes in R 3.4.0. Lots of good things coming our way.

This post by Dirk Eddelbuettel originated on his Thinking inside the box blog. Please report excessive re-aggregation in third-party for-profit settings.

/code/r4 | permanent link

Thu, 30 Mar 2017

#2: Even Easier Package Registration

Welcome to the second post in rambling random R recommendation series, or R4 for short.

Two days ago I posted the initial (actual) post. It provided context for why we need package registration entries (tl;dr: because R CMD check now tests for it, and because it The Right Thing to do, see documentation in the posts). I also showed how generating such a file src/init.c was essentially free as all it took was single call to a new helper function added to R-devel by Brian Ripley and Kurt Hornik.

Now, to actually use R-devel you obviously need to have it accessible. There are a myriad of ways to achieve that: just compile it locally as I have done for years, use a Docker image as I showed in the post -- or be creative with eg Travis or win-builder both of which give you access to R-devel if you're clever about it.

But as no good deed goes unpunished, I was of course told off today for showing a Docker example as Docker was not "Easy". I think the formal answer to that is baloney. But we leave that aside, and promise to discuss setting up Docker at another time.

R is after all ... just R. So below please find a script you can save as, say, ~/bin/pnrrs.r. And calling it---even with R-release---will generate the same code snippet as I showed via Docker. Call it a one-off backport of the new helper function -- with a half-life of a few weeks at best as we will have R 3.4.0 as default in just a few weeks. The script will then reduce to just the final line as the code will be present with R 3.4.0.



.find_calls_in_package_code <- tools:::.find_calls_in_package_code
.read_description <- tools:::.read_description

## all what follows is from R-devel aka R 3.4.0 to be

package_ff_call_db <- function(dir) {
    ## A few packages such as CDM use base::.Call
    ff_call_names <- c(".C", ".Call", ".Fortran", ".External",
                       "base::.C", "base::.Call",
                       "base::.Fortran", "base::.External")

    predicate <- function(e) {
        (length(e) > 1L) &&
            ![[1L]]), ff_call_names))

    calls <- .find_calls_in_package_code(dir,
                                         predicate = predicate,
                                         recursive = TRUE)
    calls <- unlist(Filter(length, calls))

    if(!length(calls)) return(NULL)

    attr(calls, "dir") <- dir

native_routine_registration_db_from_ff_call_db <- function(calls, dir = NULL, character_only = TRUE) {
    if(!length(calls)) return(NULL)

    ff_call_names <- c(".C", ".Call", ".Fortran", ".External")
    ff_call_args <- lapply(ff_call_names,
                           function(e) args(get(e, baseenv())))
    names(ff_call_args) <- ff_call_names
    ff_call_args_names <-
                      function(e) names(formals(e))), setdiff,

        dir <- attr(calls, "dir")

    package <- # drop name
        as.vector(.read_description(file.path(dir, "DESCRIPTION"))["Package"])

    symbols <- character()
    nrdb <-
               function(e) {
                   if (startsWith(deparse(e[[1L]]), "base::"))
                       e[[1L]] <- e[[1L]][3L]
                   ## First figure out whether ff calls had '...'.
                   pos <- which(unlist(Map(identical,
                                           lapply(e, as.character),
                   ## Then match the call with '...' dropped.
                   ## Note that only .NAME could be given by name or
                   ## positionally (the other ff interface named
                   ## arguments come after '...').
                   if(length(pos)) e <- e[-pos]
                   ## drop calls with only ...
                   if(length(e) < 2L) return(NULL)
                   cname <- as.character(e[[1L]])
                   ## The help says
                   ## '.NAME' is always matched to the first argument
                   ## supplied (which should not be named).
                   ## But some people do (Geneland ...).
                   nm <- names(e); nm[2L] <- ""; names(e) <- nm
                   e <-[[cname]], e)
                   ## Only keep ff calls where .NAME is character
                   ## or (optionally) a name.
                   s <- e[[".NAME"]]
                   if( {
                       s <- deparse(s)[1L]
                       if(character_only) {
                           symbols <<- c(symbols, s)
                   } else if(is.character(s)) {
                       s <- s[1L]
                   } else { ## expressions
                       symbols <<- c(symbols, deparse(s))
                   ## Drop the ones where PACKAGE gives a different
                   ## package. Ignore those which are not char strings.
                   if(!is.null(p <- e[["PACKAGE"]]) &&
                      is.character(p) && !identical(p, package))
                   n <- if(length(pos)) {
                            ## Cannot determine the number of args: use
                            ## -1 which might be ok for .External().
                        } else {
                                            ff_call_args_names[[cname]]))) - 1L
                   ## Could perhaps also record whether 's' was a symbol
                   ## or a character string ...
                   cbind(cname, s, n)
    nrdb <-, nrdb)
    nrdb <-, stringsAsFactors = FALSE)

    if(NROW(nrdb) == 0L || length(nrdb) != 3L)
        stop("no native symbols were extracted")
    nrdb[, 3L] <- as.numeric(nrdb[, 3L])
    nrdb <- nrdb[order(nrdb[, 1L], nrdb[, 2L], nrdb[, 3L]), ]
    nms <- nrdb[, "s"]
    dups <- unique(nms[duplicated(nms)])

    ## Now get the namespace info for the package.
    info <- parseNamespaceFile(basename(dir), dirname(dir))
    ## Could have ff calls with symbols imported from other packages:
    ## try dropping these eventually.
    imports <- info$imports
    imports <- imports[lengths(imports) == 2L]
    imports <- unlist(lapply(imports, `[[`, 2L))

    info <- info$nativeRoutines[[package]]
    ## Adjust native routine names for explicit remapping or
    ## namespace .fixes.
    if(length(symnames <- info$symbolNames)) {
        ind <- match(nrdb[, 2L], names(symnames), nomatch = 0L)
        nrdb[ind > 0L, 2L] <- symnames[ind]
    } else if(!character_only &&
              any((fixes <- info$registrationFixes) != "")) {
        ## There are packages which have not used the fixes, e.g. utf8latex
        ## fixes[1L] is a prefix, fixes[2L] is an undocumented suffix
        nrdb[, 2L] <- sub(paste0("^", fixes[1L]), "", nrdb[, 2L])
            nrdb[, 2L] <- sub(paste0(fixes[2L]), "$", "", nrdb[, 2L])
    ## See above.
    if(any(ind <- ![, 2L], imports))))
        nrdb <- nrdb[!ind, , drop = FALSE]

    ## Fortran entry points are mapped to l/case
    dotF <- nrdb$cname == ".Fortran"
    nrdb[dotF, "s"] <- tolower(nrdb[dotF, "s"])

    attr(nrdb, "package") <- package
    attr(nrdb, "duplicates") <- dups
    attr(nrdb, "symbols") <- unique(symbols)

format_native_routine_registration_db_for_skeleton <- function(nrdb, align = TRUE, include_declarations = FALSE) {

    fmt1 <- function(x, n) {
        c(if(align) {
              paste(format(sprintf("    {\"%s\",", x[, 1L])),
                    format(sprintf(if(n == "Fortran")
                                       "(DL_FUNC) &F77_NAME(%s),"
                                       "(DL_FUNC) &%s,",
                                   x[, 1L])),
                    format(sprintf("%d},", x[, 2L]),
                           justify = "right"))
          } else {
              sprintf(if(n == "Fortran")
                          "    {\"%s\", (DL_FUNC) &F77_NAME(%s), %d},"
                          "    {\"%s\", (DL_FUNC) &%s, %d},",
                      x[, 1L],
                      x[, 1L],
                      x[, 2L])
          "    {NULL, NULL, 0}")

    package <- attr(nrdb, "package")
    dups <- attr(nrdb, "duplicates")
    symbols <- attr(nrdb, "symbols")

    nrdb <- split(nrdb[, -1L, drop = FALSE],
                  factor(nrdb[, 1L],
                         levels =
                             c(".C", ".Call", ".Fortran", ".External")))

    has <- vapply(nrdb, NROW, 0L) > 0L
    nms <- names(nrdb)
    entries <- substring(nms, 2L)
    blocks <- Map(function(x, n) {
                      c(sprintf("static const R_%sMethodDef %sEntries[] = {",
                                n, n),
                        fmt1(x, n),

    decls <- c(
        "/* FIXME: ",
        "   Add declarations for the native routines registered below.",

    if(include_declarations) {
        decls <- c(
            "/* FIXME: ",
            "   Check these declarations against the C/Fortran source code.",
            if(NROW(y <- nrdb$.C)) {
                 args <- sapply(y$n, function(n) if(n >= 0)
                                paste(rep("void *", n), collapse=", ")
                                else "/* FIXME */")
                c("", "/* .C calls */",
                  paste0("extern void ", y$s, "(", args, ");"))
            if(NROW(y <- nrdb$.Call)) {
                args <- sapply(y$n, function(n) if(n >= 0)
                               paste(rep("SEXP", n), collapse=", ")
                               else "/* FIXME */")
               c("", "/* .Call calls */",
                  paste0("extern SEXP ", y$s, "(", args, ");"))
            if(NROW(y <- nrdb$.Fortran)) {
                 args <- sapply(y$n, function(n) if(n >= 0)
                                paste(rep("void *", n), collapse=", ")
                                else "/* FIXME */")
                c("", "/* .Fortran calls */",
                  paste0("extern void F77_NAME(", y$s, ")(", args, ");"))
            if(NROW(y <- nrdb$.External))
                c("", "/* .External calls */",
                  paste0("extern SEXP ", y$s, "(SEXP);"))

    headers <- if(NROW(nrdb$.Call) || NROW(nrdb$.External))
        c("#include <R.h>", "#include <Rinternals.h>")
    else if(NROW(nrdb$.Fortran)) "#include <R_ext/RS.h>"
    else character()

      "#include <stdlib.h> // for NULL",
      "#include <R_ext/Rdynload.h>",
      if(length(symbols)) {
            "  The following symbols/expresssions for .NAME have been omitted",
            "", strwrap(symbols, indent = 4, exdent = 4), "",
            "  Most likely possible values need to be added below.",
            "*/", "")
      if(length(dups)) {
            "  The following name(s) appear with different usages",
            "  e.g., with different numbers of arguments:",
            "", strwrap(dups, indent = 4, exdent = 4), "",
            "  This needs to be resolved in the tables and any declarations.",
            "*/", "")
      unlist(blocks, use.names = FALSE),
      ## We cannot use names with '.' in: WRE mentions replacing with "_"
      sprintf("void R_init_%s(DllInfo *dll)",
              gsub(".", "_", package, fixed = TRUE)),
      sprintf("    R_registerRoutines(dll, %s);",
                            paste0(entries, "Entries"),
                     collapse = ", ")),
      "    R_useDynamicSymbols(dll, FALSE);",

package_native_routine_registration_db <- function(dir, character_only = TRUE) {
    calls <- package_ff_call_db(dir)
    native_routine_registration_db_from_ff_call_db(calls, dir, character_only)

package_native_routine_registration_db <- function(dir, character_only = TRUE) {
    calls <- package_ff_call_db(dir)
    native_routine_registration_db_from_ff_call_db(calls, dir, character_only)

package_native_routine_registration_skeleton <- function(dir, con = stdout(), align = TRUE,
                                                         character_only = TRUE, include_declarations = TRUE) {
    nrdb <- package_native_routine_registration_db(dir, character_only)
                align, include_declarations),

package_native_routine_registration_skeleton(".")  ## when R 3.4.0 is out you only need this line

Here I use /usr/bin/r as I happen to like littler a lot, but you can use Rscript the same way.

Easy enough now?

This post by Dirk Eddelbuettel originated on his Thinking inside the box blog. Please report excessive re-aggregation in third-party for-profit settings.

/code/r4 | permanent link

Wed, 29 Mar 2017

#1: Easy Package Registration

Welcome to the first actual post in the R4 series, following the short announcement earlier this week.


Last month, Brian Ripley announced on r-devel that registration of routines would now be tested for by R CMD check in r-devel (which by next month will become R 3.4.0). A NOTE will be issued now, this will presumably turn into a WARNING at some point. Writing R Extensions has an updated introduction) of the topic.

Package registration has long been available, and applies to all native (i.e. "compiled") function via the .C(), .Call(), .Fortran() or .External() interfaces. If you use any of those -- and .Call() may be the only truly relevant one here -- then is of interest to you.

Brian Ripley and Kurt Hornik also added a new helper function: tools::package_native_routine_registration_skeleton(). It parses the R code of your package and collects all native function entrypoints in order to autogenerate the registration. It is available in R-devel now, will be in R 3.4.0 and makes adding such registration truly trivial.

But as of today, it requires that you have R-devel. Once R 3.4.0 is out, you can call the helper directly.

As for R-devel, there have always been at least two ways to use it: build it locally (which we may cover in another R4 installment), or using Docker. Here will focus on the latter by relying on the Rocker project by Carl and myself.

Use the Rocker drd Image

We assume you can run Docker on your system. How to add it on Windows, macOS or Linux is beyond our scope here today, but also covered extensively elsewhere. So we assume you can execute docker and e.g. bring in the 'daily r-devel' image drd from our Rocker project via

~$ docker pull rocker/drd

With that, we can use R-devel to create the registration file very easily in a single call (which is a long command-line we have broken up with one line-break for the display below).

The following is real-life example when I needed to add registration to the RcppTOML package for this week's update:

~/git/rcpptoml(master)$ docker run --rm -ti -v $(pwd):/mnt rocker/drd \  ## line break
             RD --slave -e 'tools::package_native_routine_registration_skeleton("/mnt")'
#include <R.h>
#include <Rinternals.h>
#include <stdlib.h> // for NULL
#include <R_ext/Rdynload.h>

/* FIXME: 
   Check these declarations against the C/Fortran source code.

/* .Call calls */
extern SEXP RcppTOML_tomlparseImpl(SEXP, SEXP, SEXP);

static const R_CallMethodDef CallEntries[] = {
    {"RcppTOML_tomlparseImpl", (DL_FUNC) &RcppTOML_tomlparseImpl, 3},
    {NULL, NULL, 0}

void R_init_RcppTOML(DllInfo *dll)
    R_registerRoutines(dll, NULL, CallEntries, NULL, NULL);
    R_useDynamicSymbols(dll, FALSE);

Decompose the Command

We can understand the docker command invocation above through its components:

  • docker run is the basic call to a container
  • --rm -ti does subsequent cleanup (--rm) and gives a terminal (-t) that is interactive (-i)
  • -v $(pwd):/mnt uses the -v a:b options to make local directory a available as b in the container; here $(pwd) calls print working directory to get the local directory which is now mapped to /mnt in the container
  • rocker/drd invokes the 'drd' container of the Rocker project
  • RD is a shorthand to the R-devel binary inside the container, and the main reason we use this container
  • -e 'tools::package_native_routine_registration_skeleton("/mnt") calls the helper function of R (currently in R-devel only, so we use RD) to compute a possible init.c file based on the current directory -- which is /mnt inside the container

That it. We get a call to the R function executed inside the Docker container, examining the package in the working directory and creating a registration file for it which is display to the console.

Copy the Output to src/init.c

We simply copy the output to a file src/init.c; I often fold one opening brace one line up.


We also change one line in NAMESPACE from (for this package) useDynLib("RcppTOML") to useDynLib("RcppTOML", .registration=TRUE). Adjust accordingly for other package names.

That's it!

And with that we a have a package which no longer provokes the NOTE as seen by the checks page. Calls to native routines are now safer (less of a chance for name clashing), get called quicker as we skip the symbol search (see the WRE discussion) and best of all this applies to all native routines whether written by hand or written via a generator such as Rcpp Attributes.

So give this a try to get your package up-to-date.

This post by Dirk Eddelbuettel originated on his Thinking inside the box blog. Please report excessive re-aggregation in third-party for-profit settings.

/code/r4 | permanent link

Mon, 27 Mar 2017

#0: Introducing R^4

So I had been toying with the idea of getting back to the blog and more regularly writing / posting little tips and tricks. I even started taking some notes but because perfect is always the enemy of the good it never quite materialized.

But the relatively broad discussion spawned by last week's short rant on Suggests != Depends made a few things clear. There appears to be an audience. It doesn't have to be long. And it doesn't have to be too polished.

So with that, let's get the blogging back from micro-blogging.

This note forms post zero of what will a new segment I call R4 which is shorthand for relatively random R rambling.

Stay tuned.

This post by Dirk Eddelbuettel originated on his Thinking inside the box blog. Please report excessive re-aggregation in third-party for-profit settings.

/code/r4 | permanent link